My research work is aimed at developing realistic stochastic compartmental models which offer good understanding of transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. In particular, the work involves searching for new insights on compartmental model based inference – part of the work involves: (i) offering perspectives on how to fit stochastic compartmental models e.g., how to introduce stochasticity in the compartmental system, studying which parameters are inferable from available data, exploring the impact of how unobserved data are handled on inference; (ii) exploring the importance of non-linear mass action principle when the goal is to estimate the basic reproduction number and; (iii) exploring the importance of non-linear mass action in revealing population mixing structure at the spatial level.